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From tablets such as these, and from engraved plates, as well as from inscribed olas, copies and fac-similes might have been easily made by a process analogous to that of copper-plate printing; the only drawback being that in all such copies the printed characters would have been reversed. The circulation of printed books created hosts of readers, who otherwise would have remained ignorant of any kind of literature, ancient or modern. To the objections, that no printed book bears the name of Coster or his descendants, and that neither he nor they ever entered their protest against the pretensions of Mentz, Koning replies: To the above account it may be added, that the blocks, each containing two pages, are frequently engraved on both sides; that the sheets printed are small, and impressed on one side only; and that each sheet when dry is folded back, so as to present the appearance of a leaf impressed on both sides. But as block-printing was only for the first time imperially ordered in the year , it is very probable that the art was known long before that date.

scz familia prometeusz

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The annexed sketch represents a press in its completed form, with tympans attached to the end of the carriage, and with the frisket above the tympans.

This frequently led to the female members of a family being placed in convents, for which provision might be made in the original entailment of the property. The importance of this invention must at once have been felt, and by decreasing the expense of 59 manuscripts,—hitherto written on parchments, or the perishable papyrus,—have greatly enlarged the demand for such documents.

It is broadly stated by Wetterthat he was born between the years and But in the consideration of this subject there are other questions which ought not to be overlooked;— e. Whether, as we suspect, he had ominously the name of Faustus—unfaithful and unlucky to his master,—or whether he was really a person of that name, I shall not much inquire; being unwilling to molest the silent shades, who suffer from a consciousness of their past actions in this life.

Of the theft itself there is no proof.

Wienzo i Magia – Prometeusz

Separable 88 types with the then known methods for making use of them, were but as acorns in comparison with stately full grown oaks,—but sickly stunted bushes, instead of luxuriant vines, from whose wide-spreading boughs the thickly clustered bunches of ripe, refreshing, life-giving fruit should be sought for far and near. What was its construction, or what the use to which it was applied, I cannot conjecture.

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scz familia prometeusz

As the four last are of modern date, they do not come within the scope of the present work. These were the first products of his press. They were also forbidden by the Council of Cologne in the year In the first place, Faust had, at the outset, security for his advances.

But the history of books in Europe, the productions of the early printers in the various countries to which they carried their art, is one to which our subject is most closely allied; and European bibliography is a study to which many men of great ability have devoted themselves during the last three centuries, in Germany, Holland, England, Spain, France, Italy, Belgium, and other countries.

scz familia prometeusz

The precise date of his arrival and settlement in Strasburg has not been ascertained, but that it was prior to is known from a letter written to his sister Bertha, on the 24th March of that year; [34] probably it was about the year72 and may have been occasioned by the political disturbances of the time. No positive proof, however, has been, or can be given that they were the latter.

Various suppositions have been made, to account for this, but no one appears to have thought of that which seems to be the most obvious; namely, that sets of matrices or types were sold by Gutenberg to these early printers, who with Keffer and Sensenschmidt and others, were taught the art at his establishment.

On this subject, Mr.

scz familia prometeusz

The mind of man had become, as it were, without form and void; and in that state, humanly speaking, it was long likely to remain. The chief difficulty—the greatest obstacle in the way of putting to a practical use the Types as now designed, and thus bringing the Typographic Art before the world,—was the want of the Letter Press.

Eytzinger, in his work on the topography of the Low Countries, printed inand Braunius of Cologne, in his Civitates Orbis Terrarumprinted in —, assign to Haarlem the origin of the art. When he came to that part of his narrative touching the robbery, he would burst into tears, and curse with the greatest vehemence those nights in gamilia he had slept with so vile a csz, declaring that were he still alive, he could with pleasure execute the thief with his own hands.

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And for nearly a familiaa no one had ventured to doubt that either images of saints, or characters for playing cards, were first printed from engraved wooden blocks, as cheap substitutes for the works of the draftsman and painter;—that these were succeeded by subjects of sacred history with explanatory legends cut in wood, imitative of the art of the illuminator, and the caligraphy of the familiia or professional writers;—that these again were followed by Donatuses;—and that from these Donatuses, printed from solid blocks, Gutenberg obtained his first idea of the Typographic Art.

The emperor adopted the advice; but it was only in damilia second of the years Kouan-chun that the engraving of the blocks was completed.

Wienzo i Magia – Prometeusz

It has, however, been reduced to an inch in height to suit the size of the type and allow of its being herewith printed. Their principal occupation would be in connection with the work for which Faust made the advance of florins; but while that was progressing, several small matters were printed, for which there would be a steady though probably only a limited demand.

Darkness at this period covered the earth and gross darkness the people. His death took place inbefore the expiration of the term allotted for the partnership, and while he was still indebted to Gutenberg in the sum of eighty-five florins. Bensley the eminent printer, and first set in operation in Aprilat the manufactory in Whitecross-street, London; when it printed sheets of the Annual Registerto the admiration of all who saw it at work.

But although, poeticallyMr. The result of his labours is now submitted to the public. Thus, at Antwerp the Society of St. The difference however between such a process and that invented and put in practice by Gutenberg, is as great as that which exists between the battering rams and catapults of the ancients, and the siege trains of modern artillerists.

Moreover, each author wrote in his own dialect, or to speak prometeuss correctly, in the pure native English of his own part of England. The claims of Coster and Haarlem considered, as opposed to those of Gutenberg and Mentz.